Sipping Rum: Some New Palindromes

A somewhat popular sport [1, 2] is extending Leigh Mercer’s immortal palindrome “A man, a plan, a canal—Panama!” It occurred to me that its principle can be applied to the Polish palindrome by Julian Tuwim: “Popija rum as, samuraj i pop.” (“Both an ace, a samurai, and an Orthodox priest are sipping rum.”) All we need is a computer program and a list of Polish animate nouns. Here we go:

Popija rum as, said, diak, goj, drab, tokolog, igrek, odlewca, mim, tenor, abba, rodak, imam, alkad, gigant, alb, ober, retor, fan, ilot, rapper, nowy car, usar, adresat, efor, papa, grek, saper, treser, epik, bob, angol, ananas, aga, mameluk, urka, tatka, ergolog, ladro, lis, ork, induna, grum, fleja, batiar, akyn, wał, sowar, psar, kudła, renegat, symplak, ilota, kat, alumn, amor, eponim, daremnik, spec, tan, gajowy, durnota, kret, inka, mods, esbol, rajtar, bidak, tamada, mongoloid, arat, sir, abat, imamita, barista, radiolog, nomada, mat, kadi, brat, jarl, obses, domak, niter, katon, rudy woj, agnat, cep, skin, mer, admin, operoman, mulat, akatolik, alp, mysta, generał, duk, ras, prawosławny, karaita, baj, elf, murga, nudnik, rosi, lord, algolog, reak, tata, kruk, ulema, mag, asan, analog, nabob, kiper, eser, trep, asker, gapa, profeta, serdar, asura, cywon, rep, partolina, froter, reb, oblat, nagi gdak, lama, mikado, rab, baronet, mima, cwel, doker, gigolo, kot, bard, jog, kaid, dias, samuraj i pop.

(The adjectives nowy, rudy, and nagi got mixed among nouns. For a better effect, I manually removed the commas that followed them.)

Lazily, I used only slightly modified Peter Norvig’s backtracking program. I extracted the nouns from a text file used in the Polish morphological analyzer Polimorfologik. The lines of the file look like this:

samuraj         samuraj subst:sg:nom:m1
samuraja        samuraj subst:sg:acc:m1+subst:sg:gen:m1
samurajach      samuraj subst:pl:loc:m1
samurajami      samuraj subst:pl:inst:m1

The appropriate forms of nouns can be extracted with

$ grep subst:sg.*nom.*m1 polimorfologik.txt | cut -f 1 > npdict.txt

The m1 class contains masculine-personal aka virile nouns. Although the names of animals from the m2 class would also suit our purposes, that class contains also names of odd things like currencies, dances, car brands, or mushroom genera that would look strange in the sentence. With apologies to feminists, I have no means of extracting feminine-personal nouns or neuter-personal nouns automatically as they play no special role in Polish grammar.

The palindrome above contains only singular forms of common nouns (152 words in total). If we allow also singular masculine forms of adjectives, we can get a 269-word palindrome:

Popija rum as, said, diak, goj, drab, perski murga, kadi beż netto, klawy rzutki froter, kto, penolog, iglany sini magaski frant, utyty bojowny kaper, trak, sanowy cynawy rusy rotny sracz, sowar, aspan, ilot, raptor, mamlas, on, rebe, wali lis, jebak, cacy woli amor, fan, wodnik, ergolog, lama, mim, asker, gad, jarski men, as, pajac, darmy rosi preser, oferent, rapsod, nabab, abat, symplak, induna, tebriski gamrat, akatolik, rodak, ladro, lisi migany wandal, papa, cwel, doker, gid, rumski golkiper, asura, elew, okej arat, siwy ratar, maksi potowy żywotni wig, orski alb, obyły baca, cywil, paskuda, gemajn, inka, tępy wolowaty raby skin, turkos, esbol, użyty spec, ki marecki mima, kruk, a-ż popi lżywy wozak, angol, ananas, a-z raja, jary picer, kok, tato, nominat, inaki cap, ospały wilk, muli pupka, mods, aborter, dr, enat, siny talib, abba, reb, be rab, babi latynista, nerd, retro, bas, domak, pupil, umkliwy łaps, opaci kani tani mono tatko, kreci pyra, jajarz, asan, analog, nakazowy wyżli pop, żak, urka, mimik, ceramik, cep, syty żul, obses, okrutnik, sybaryta, wolowy pętak, ninja, mega duk, sapliwy caca były bob, laik, srogi wintowy żywotopis, kamrat, arywista, rajek, ow, elear, usar, epik, logik, smurd, igrek, odlewca, papla, dnawy nagi misi lord, alkad, ork, ilota, katar, magik, sir, beta, nudnik, alp, mysta, baba, bandos, partner, efor, eser, pisorym, radca, japs, anemik, srajda, grek, sam, imam, algolog, rekin, down, afro, mailowy cacka, bej, si lila, weber, nosal, mamrot, partolina, psar, awosz, car, syn, torys, urywany cywon, askar, trep, akyn, woj, obyty tutnar, fiks, aga, mini synal, gigolo, nepot, kret, orfik, tuz, rywal, kot, tenże bidaka, grum, iks, rep, bard, jog, kaid, dias, samuraj i pop.

Using plural and proper nouns, we can reach at least 1493 words, for instance:

Popija rum as, kalif, drab, Belg, Remus, Leon, pank, said, diak, Goj, Acis, Pac, Tabak, Kajus, reb, luj, Iwon, Noe, Selim, kacap, Damon, Melcer, epicy, Rob, Atkinson, Jahn, Wahl, Omar, turowiec, ubici, nabab, Mobutu, helota, Nagórski, Dyda, kraker, Gola, Timur, Gil, Ramzes, Romanik, imperator, Ajnos, waleci, biker, rajtar, Umer, Miotk, Popek, Nils, Lefeld, epik, car, Tamil, Amoni, Capała, Sarnat, Jeron, Urban, Orwelle, Tym, Einar, Usarek, rabi, nemrodzi, Kramnik, Sałacki, Sawini, basza, Idzi, Zaremba, raja, Rogacz, Rubeni, Atlas, ontolog, anemicy, Ron, imitator, Inka, Bulik, setkarz, sublokator, Eisler, akatolicy, tato, idioci, Vidor, Apacz, Alan, Ziomek, Albin, Rom, Oktawian, odaj, Arka, kadi, boss, Ursyn, Ahmad, Dassin, Eden, Siadlak, Oscar, Idec, udecy, Rupert, rastamani, Armin, Onak, Rola, Gill, Eco, były, Tom, Eluard, Niski, Nyk, Anatol, Olson, Orkan, rasta, Geller, Bask, oblat, Emil, Ado, Izydor, ras, sipaj, Amnon, Nelson, imam, lapicyda, Bill, Iwan, Alo, Skiba, Tim, Jankes, Uryga, Nycz, Darek, Ardelli, arbek, lirycy, Raczek, Orion, Roda, Cortazar, Odo, idol, Otis, Sobik, cep, opaci, Sak, Lew, Morka, bydlak, Sommer, Feret, Tyrsi, robol, opilec, Rama, Gert, ufolog, Iżyccy, Malka, Kwak, Malak, Tal, Redak, Solti, Lopez, Sot, rabbi, Latacz, Darren, Sopata, Taj, ninje, limnolog, flisak, udek, Kimak, Byrski, Fibak, Masaj, Elsner, efeb, lokator, Papała, Bacik, Cepil, Sabat, sietniak, tokolog, Igrek, Sade, Mahomet, Opacki, sowar, Racki, Amor, Rawik, suswał, Syta, rwacz, Dow, Zadura, Dunin, Olas, Bakuła, Bil, Loeb, ergolog, Lasek, Liw, jarle, Varga, mener, Tabaka, logicy, Razin, Roja, Paganini, Lak, Baran, ilot, rapper, twoi, Wołosi, Colin, Eweni, Borak, Jaksa, gimnazjasta, Rams, Uri, Cywka, Durka, Meisels, Ilia, Koj, Jordi, Vadim, Arrow, Agaton, Rudnik, Eric, Neil, knajak, Tyrawa, Bazan, Nestor, Olek, Nawoj, uwol, Racine, Magnus, mahdi, Wronka, Bełza, Floryni, Zub, Ołdak, Lasota, Linde, Ibsen, Negr, Ezopi, Woda, Swatek, odlewcy, Cezary, preser, eks, ubol, Koba, katar, Katz, Sapir, Nehru, lider, ubek, Collina, blogger, git, Nastak, Inuita, Maj, akolici, Fuk, nomada, rapsod, Adad, Jagger, autycy, Ted, Jeka, Jakub, ulema, Kwoka, Byrnes, rajas, abaci, Bukała, Bigos, satrapa, kortyzani, Lewek, alastor, profes, Ares, Kobak, lord, Labuda, Prada, Gleba, Trak, Sas, Able, Baka, Dubik, Cortez, Carsten, Rokita, Sornat, stenograf, Asser, Roth, celnik, Surmiak, Kern, Elgar, Edgar, Agis, tutnar, Ozawa, Kret, ultrasi, Bulak, Rurak, Dubois, Eldar, Bator, askar, Buksa, Kulig, Annamita, Rodak, Edyp, Agha, psor, Engel, Orione, Rota, King, asan, agregat, symplak, Ezaw, Ed, Toni, Gamrat, Artur, Ammon, organik, radny, doyeni, woj, agnat, sir, tatul, Pini, Drabik, modele, Depa, Dowi, Losey, Lesik, Sobota, Lis, pajac, Rolnik, Topor, Knysak, Turner, Olsen, Rabin, Mizak, Lada, Tyl, kady, filareci, patron, etatowi, Sasak, lemani, Wontor, Wanat, esbol, logik, Seliga, Mały, Waluk, Komsta, radiesteci, Nata, lump, Radlak, Stefani, Samsel, Tibor, Deptuła, baje, rabini, Norris, Ajmar, Grecy, zabici, Cini, akrobata, Dustin, Abel, Bąba, krytycy, Brando, Baj, Lizut, Zin, Bielat, Fokker, Edison, Jarema, logograf, Ilje, Bata, Pazik, smerd, Renat, Hempel, Rus, Rey, matoł, Spytko, jubilat, fani, Sudnik, etolog, Nanaj, Abram, Otokar, wyrypaje, Izraele, Elkana, Motak, Josh, Calik, Kelles, seksoman, acanek, Kazulin, Odon, alim, Kahn, abba, Dante, Mulawa, Lasak, Puk, Jagła, renegat, Samon, Osak, Nijak, Golan, Aznar, Ficek, Odil, aktor, Gruza, maruda, Mick, eleata, Pol, Alec, Lehr, Habakuk, oblaci, Fin, Adam, Rojak, modsi, Welt, Opałka, Sroka, Galaty, Malik, Sałata, Inuici, Walas, homeopata, Kunz, Siwik, Cąkała, Kazko, Wonder, Flak, urka, Maldini, mohele, nemrod, Nash, Allan, orator, Mamak, John, Eros, Kenar, Fik, Cebulak, Lompa, Grek, Rapak, Pot, stangreci, Pen, Rubaj, elf, Kukiz, androfag, Rumas, Ornat, Ante, fajter, rajca, geje, Becu, Mak, lokat, pedagog, adept, togat, Simon, Erik, Cudak, sensat, Natanek, inki, Piccoli, kretyn, Liszcz, sipaje, tamada, Morgała, Duff, Alois, Anan, Aresi, Reje, Makuła, Bułat, Olak, Jedak, Repin, Nita, Kudyba, Breza, gej, Dejon, Gała, Parda, Hatak, Lussac, Ulf, larrikini, leweller, rafiner, Atapask, insi, Boni, Capone, Fryz, sumici, Mann, Arent, Socyn, Tomas, Roger, groom, kat, Rufin, Tomasze, Najder, froter, Pinda, Rataj, Zappa, Prodi, skini, model, papa, Dudała, Kalukin, Lisik, Swat, Sycz, Durak, trombon, Snell, atleci, foks, Kamil, Lutz, Solak, Renn, Ernest, pokraka, Meir, uczeni, tramp, pedał, Duk, wał, Carnot, Romeo, Fedak, Ratka, Dydycz, Rubik, Celej, Opoka, baca, Kiwak, Bubak, Orest, Keler, Ebert, Saługa, mimik, pupka, Trawka, mods, Rudi, Wadas, Korpak, Majak, Messi, papla, Sawka, tępak, Dudycz, Delon, Allach, Corelli, Heine, Lejb, Resnais, sahib, mozarab, Otto, Klein, adresant, sardar, homo, niter, Al, Hadała, Bugała, Basta, serdar, DJ, adamici, Numida, wałkoń, erudyci, Gama, Kutz, Skałka, nudnik, Nobel, opętany, zupak, typas, Elamici, Follett, Sujka, Basak, Tutak, Pałka, Perez, Cliff, Latała, hip, opat, Sierak, Pęksa, Haba, Bremer, kok, Loba, Pękała, pokraki, Kasiak, Lepka, Boba, goje, tatka, Pułka, Pełka, Josif, Lars, esbole, Druszcz, sułtan, Hawel, pludrak, Solon, gapa, Klim, Kazik, alumni, Soski, Marecki, Sowa, profeci, Noam, Nalepa, Korda, Lece, dewot, Stowe, Dece, ladro, kapelan, Mao, Nicefor, Paw, Osik, ceramik, Sosin, Mulak, Izak, Milka, Pagnol, Oskar, Dul, Plewa, Hnat, Łuszcz, Surdel, obses, Ralfi, Sojak, łepak, Łupak, Tate, joga, Bobak, Pelka, Isak, Ikar, Kopała, Kępa, Bolko, Kremer, baba, Has, Kępka, reista, popi, Hałat, Alf, Fil, Czerepak, Łapka, Tutka, Sabak, Just, Tell, ofici, Malesa, Pytka, Puzyna, tępole, Bonk, induna, Kłak, Sztuka, magicy, dureń, Okła, Wadim, unici, Madaj, dr, adresat, Sabała, Gubała, Dahl, Aretino, Mohr, Adrast, Naser, Daniel, Kott, Obara, zombi, Hass, Ian, Serb, jelenie, Hille, Roch, Callan, Oledzcy, Dudka, pętak, wasal, Papis, Semka, Jamka, Proksa, Dawid, Urs, domak, Wartak, pupki, mima, Guła, streber, elekt, Seroka, Bubka, Wika, Cabak, opoje, Lecki, burzcy, Dydak, Tarka, Defoe, Morton, Racław, Kudła, Depp, Martinez, Curie, Makar, Kopt, Sen, Renner, kalosz, Tulli, Maks, Kofi, Celt, Allen, snob, Mortka, Rudzcy, Stawski, silni, Kula, Kała, Duda, paple, Dominik, Sidor, Papp, Azjata, radni, pretor, Fred, Janez, samotni, Furtak, Moor, Gregor, samotny, Costner, Annamici, muszyr, fenopaci, Nobis, Niksa, patareni, Farrell, Ewelini, Kir, Ralf, Lucas, Sulka, Taha, Drapała, gnoje, DJ-e, gazer, baby, Dukat, inni, Perka, Dej, Kalota, Łuba, Łuka, Mejer, Iser, ananasi, Olaf, Fudała, Gromada, Mateja, Piszcz, silny, Terki, Locci, piknik, enat, Antas, Neska, Ducki, renomista, Gott, pedagoga, Depta, Kolka, muce, beje, Gac, Jarret, Jafet, Natan, Rosa, murga, Ford, nazi, Kuk, fleja, Burne, picer, Gnat, Stopka, Parker, gap, Molka, Lubecki, Franek, Soren, Hojka, mamrot, Aron, Allah, Sandor, menele, hominid, lama, Kruk, Alfred, Nowok, zakała, Kącki, Wisznu, Kata, Poe, Mohs, alawici, uniata, Łaski, lamy, Talaga, Korsak, Łapot, Lewis, Domka, Jorma, Dani, Fic, alb, Okuka, Bahr, Helcel, alopata, elekci, Madura, Mazur, Grot, Kali, dokeci, Franz, analog, Kaj, Inkas, onomasta, generał, Gaj, Kupka, Salawa, Lumet, Nadab, ban, Hak, Milan, Odoni, luzak, Ken, acan, Amos, Kessel, Lekki, Lach, Sojka, Tomana, Klee, Lear, Zieja, pyry, wrak, Otomar, Bajan, Angol, Otek, Indusi, Naftali, Bujok, typ, Słota, Myers, Urlep, Mehta, nerd, Remski, Zapata, bej, Lifar, gogo, lamer, Ajnosi, Derek, Kofta, Leibniz, tuz, Ilja, Bodnar, Bycy, Tyrka, bąble, banit, Suda, Tabor, kainici, Ciba, zycer, Gram, Jasir, ronini, Bareja, Bałut, Pedro, bitles, Masina, Fet, skald, Arp, Mulat, Anicet, seid, arat, Smok, kulawy, łamagi, Leski, Gollob, Seta, Nawrot, Nowina, Melka, Sasi, Wota, tenor, tapicer, Ali, Fyda, Klyta, Dalka, Zimni, Barnes, Loren, Rutka, syn, Kropotkin, Lorca, japsi, Lato, boski, Selye, Soliwoda, pedele, Domki, Bardini, Pluta, Tristan, gajowi, Ney, Odyn, Darkin, agronom, Marut, ratar, Maginot, dewa, zek, alp, mysta, Ger, Ganas, Agni, Kato, Renoir, Oleg, Nero, spah, gapy, Deka, Dorati, man, nagi, Lukas, Kubrak, Sarota, Brad, Lesio, Budka, Rurka, lubi, Sart, Luter, Kawa, Zoran, Tutsi, Gara, gdera, Glen, Rek, Kaim, Ruskin, Lech, Torres, Safar, Gonet, Stan, Rosati, Kornet, sracze, Trocki, Buda, kabel, Basa, skartabel, Gad, Arpad, Ubald, Rolka, bokser, as, efor, Prot, Salak, Ewelin, Azy, Troka, par, Tasso, Gibała, Kubica, Basaj, Arsen, Rybakow, Kamel, Ubu, Kajak, ejdetycy, Tuareg, Gajda, Dados, Parada, Monk, ufici, lokaj, Amati, unikat, Santi, Greg, Golba, Nil, Locke, Bur, Edi, Lur, Henri, Paszta, Krata, kaboklo, busker, eser, pyra, zecy, cwel, doketa, wsadowi, pozer, Gennes, biedni, Latos, alkad, łobuziny, Rolf, az, łebak, Norwid, Hamsun, gameni, Carlo, wujo, Wankel, Or-Ot, Senna, Zabawa, Rytka, Jan, klienci, rekin, durnota, Gawor, Rami, David, Roj, Jokai, Lisle, Siemak, Rudak, wycirus, Marat, Saj, Zan, Migas, Kajka, Robin, Ewen, iloci, Sołowiow, trep, partolina, rab, Kalinin, aga, Pajor, nizaryci, Golak, abat, Rene, mag, Ravel, Raj, Wilkes, algolog, rebe, Olli, Bałuk, Absaloni, nuda, Ruda, zwodzca, Wratysław, Suski, Warro, Maik, Carra, Wosik, Capote, Mohamed, asker, gigolo, Kot, Kain, teista, bas, Lipecki, Cabała, Paprota, Kolbe, Ferens, Leja, Sam, kabi, fiks, Rybka, Mikke, Dukas, Ilf, Golon, Milej, ninja, tata, Posner, radzca, Talib, Bartosze, Polit, Loska, Derlatka, Lam, Kawka, Klamyccy, żigolo, Futrega, Marceli, Polo, Boris, Rytter, Efrem, Moskal, Dyba, Kromwel, Kasica, Popecki, Bossi, Tolo, Diodor, Aza, Troc, Adorno, Irokez, carycy, Rilke, Braille, Drake, Radzcy, Nagy, Rusek, najmita, Bik, Solana, Will, ibadyci, Palma, Minos, Lennon, Maja, Pissarro, Dyzio, Dali, metal, Boksa, Brel, legat, Sarna, Kronos, Lolo, tan, akyn, Iks, Indra, ulem, otyły, Bocelli, Gal, ork, anonim, Raina, mat, Sartre, puryce, duce, Dirac, Sokal, Daisne, Denis, Saddam, hanys, Russo, bidaka, Kraj, Adonai, Wat, komorni, Blake, moi, znalazca, Parodi, Vico, idiota, Tyc, ilota, Karel, Sierota, Kolbusz, Rak, Teski, Lubak, Niro, Tati, minoryci, menago, Lot, nosal, Taine, burzca, Goraj, Arab, mer, Aziz, Diaz, Sabini, Wasik, Cała, skin, markiz, Dor, meni, Barker, asura, niemy, Telle, Wrona, Bruno, Rejtan, Rasała, Pacino, Mali, Matracki, pedle, Fels, Linke, pop, kto, Imre, Murat, Jarre, kibice, Lawson, Jarota, rep, Mikina, Morse, zmarli, grum, italogrek, Arkady, Diks, Róg, Anatole, Hutu, Bomba, banici, buce, Iwo, Rut, ramol, Hawn, Hajnos, Nik, taboryci, Perec, Lem, nomad, Pacak, Miles, eon, nowi, Jul, Ber, Sujak, Kabat, cap, Sica, jog, kaid, dias, Knap, Noel, Sumer, Gleb, bard, Filak, samuraj i pop.

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Sipping Rum: Some New Palindromes

Tracking Spanish Flu through Austro–Hungarian Press

The area of the red circles on this map is proportional to the smoothed relative number of mentions of influenza in newspapers throughout the Austro–Hungarian lands in the last four months of 1918. In the same vein as Google was detecting influenza epidemics using search engine query data, perhaps these numbers approximate the local timeseries of influenza morbidity.

Austria-Hungary

The 1918–1919 pandemic, called Spanish flu, killed at least five times more people than World War I. Here is a chart of its mortality in England and Wales (source: Edwin O. Jordan, Epidemic Influenza: A Survey, 1927):

weekly-mortality

The three waves occurred at similar times worldwide. I concentrated on the second, most deadly wave in the Austro–Hungarian empire and in the states that emerged in its lands. The full-text search of ANNO (AustriaN Newspapers Online, a digitisation initiative of the Austrian National Library) allowed me to count all the occurrences of the words {Grippe, Influenza}, {chřipka, chřipky, chřipce, chřipku, chřipkou} (in the Czech newspaper Dělnické listy), and {grypa, grypą, grypę, grypie, grypy, influenza, influenzy} (in the Polish newspaper Kurjer Lwowski) by the day of their publication in 27 newspapers from 14 cities and towns. A little side discovery is that the name “Spanish flu” in all three languages first appeared in print at the beginning of July 1918.

Despite the inevitable inaccuracy of this method, among others due to OCR errors and the shadowing of the epidemic by other topics like the surrender of Austria–Hungary, the end of the monarchy, and the independence of national states, noise tends to cancel out. I inspected all 29 mentions of flu in Kurjer Lwowski in the week of Oct 7–13, 1918. Out of them:

  • 19 concerned local events,
  • 4 concerned events elsewhere in Austria,
  • 5 concerned events elsewhere in Europe.

I fitted the Gompertz curve y = c \exp(-e^{-b(t-t_0)}) to the cumulative numbers, keeping in mind the fact that the issues of some newspapers from the end of the year are missing from ANNO (recall the independence). For instance, here is the best fit for the cumulative number of times flu was mentioned in newspapers published in Vienna:

Vienna1

and a full-year chart of mentions of flu per week in the same newspapers:

Vienna2

I tried also to verify Andrew Price–Smith’s claim that Spanish flu tipped the balance of power towards the Entente in the last days of World War I. Unfortunately, many belligerent states do not have online archives of newspapers from 1918, the German archives are unsearchable, and Gallica and the British Newspaper Archive are useless: the mentions of grippe or influenza in French and British press are few and far between outside advertisements, a sign of wartime censorship. However, this table from Epidemic Influenza: A Survey showing that the highest mortality co-occurred in France and Germany makes me doubt Price–Smith’s claim:

highest-weekly-mortality

The map of Austria–Hungary above comes from MPIDR [Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research] and CGG [Chair for Geodesy and Geoinformatics, University of Rostock] 2012: MPIDR Population History GIS Collection (slightly modified version of a GIS-File by Rumpler and Seger 2010) – Rostock (Rumpler, H. and Seger, M. 2010: Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848–1918. Band IX: Soziale Strukturen. 2. Teilband: Die Gesellschaft der Habsburgermonarchie im Kartenbild. Verwaltungs-, Sozial- und Infrastrukturen. Nach dem Zensus von 1910, Wien).

Tracking Spanish Flu through Austro–Hungarian Press

When Will Earnings in Poland Match Those in Western Europe?

They already did, 450 years ago.

wages

Source of data: Bob Allen’s home page; indirectly also three Polish books: Ceny w Krakowie w latach 1369–1600, 1601–1795, 1796–1914. The prices at the end of the period would appear less inflated if expressed in gold: the gold/silver price ratio was approximately 15.5 until 1872, whereas in the early 1900s, it grew to 33–40.

When Will Earnings in Poland Match Those in Western Europe?